Type 2 Diabetes : Causes, Mechanism, Symptoms and Treatment

Type 2 diabetes is sometimes referred to as mature onset diabetes.  Type 2 diabetes is much more common than Type I.  In Type 2 diabetes the pancreas either does not produce adequate levels of insulin or the body becomes resistant to its own insulin. 

In diabetes type 2, the cells in the body do not react properly by stimulation from insulin. Therefore they do not take in enough glucose from the blood to store it or to use it as an energy source. This condition is called “Insulin Resistance”. The amount of glucose in the blood therefore rises. Also the insulin production can rise to regulate the glucose amount, but this effort to reduce the blood glucose is not effective enough. If the disease persists for many years, the insulin production may tire out, so that the amount of secreted insulin decreases.


The exact mechanism that causes the disease is not known. There may be an autoimmune response to insulin or to the molecules on the cell surfaces that the insulin connects to. However, these lifestyle factors can cause the disease:

  • Too high consumption of sugar and fat
  • Obesity
  • Sedentary lifestyle over many years.

Therefore diabetes type 2 can be prevented by a right diet and with regular exercise.

When the glucose uptake into the body cells is reduced, but glucose instead accumulates in the blood, the following physiological effects occur:

-The body cells do not get enough fuel for the work they do.

-The molecular thickness (osmality) of the blood increases. This causes water to be pulled out from the body tissues and into the blood. The tissues thus get dried out and the urine production increases.

-The tissues begin to break down protein and fat to get energy, causing weight loss and muscular reduction.

The symptoms of diabetes type 2 are a consequence of these mechanisms.


Diabetes type 2 is the most common kind of diabetes, actually 10 times more common than diabetes type 1.  The disease usually appears after the age of 50, but the high sugar and fat consumed in western countries nowadays also causes young persons to acquire the disease. Symptoms of diabetes type 2 come gradually. The symptoms are.

  • Increased urine production
  • Dehydration, that is a lack of water in the body
  • Abnormal high thirst
  • Dry mouth
  • Increased appetite
  • Slow healing of physical injuries
  • Itching in the skin
  • Infections caused by yeasts
  • Impaired vision

In the long run, the disease can cause atherosclerosis with blood vessel narrowing, heart disease and stroke.


The treatment of diabetes type 2 is most often diet with a low sugar amount and weight reduction. These measures will lighten the burden upon the blood sugar control of the body so that it manages to normalize the blood sugar levels.  If this does not work good enough, medicines to lower the blood sugar are used. If the insulin production is reduced, insulin injections are also used.

Check your blood glucose levels with Control D regularly to manage your Diabetes

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